what is glycemic index and how it affects blood sugar level

The Glycemic Index (GI) is a scale used to measure how quickly carbohydrates in a food raise blood glucose (sugar) levels after consumption. It ranks foods on a scale from 0 to 100 based on how much they cause a rapid or slow increase in blood sugar levels compared to a standard reference food (usually glucose or white bread).

The impact of a food on blood sugar levels depends on its GI value:

  1. Low GI (55 or less):
    Foods with a low GI value cause a slow and gradual rise in blood sugar levels. These foods are broken down and absorbed more slowly, leading to a more sustained release of glucose into the bloodstream. Low-GI foods are often considered beneficial for people with diabetes because they help stabilize blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of sudden spikes and crashes.

Example of low-GI foods:
Legumes, most non-starchy vegetables, whole grains like barley and quinoa.

  1. Medium GI (56 to 69):
    Foods with a medium GI value cause a moderate increase in blood sugar levels. They are absorbed at a moderate rate and can provide a somewhat steady source of energy.

Example of medium-GI foods:
Basmati rice, whole wheat products, some fruits like pineapple and raisins.

  1. High GI (70 or higher):
    Foods with a high GI value cause a rapid increase in blood sugar levels. These foods are quickly digested and absorbed, leading to a sharp spike in blood glucose levels.

Example of high-GI foods:
White bread, white rice, most sugary snacks and drinks.

How the GI affects blood sugar levels?
It is essential for people with diabetes. Consistently high blood sugar levels can lead to health complications over time. By choosing foods with a lower GI, individuals with diabetes can better manage their blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of complications. It’s important to note that the GI is just one factor to consider, and overall diet quality, portion sizes, and other nutritional factors also play significant roles in managing blood sugar levels effectively.

article for general information only. please discuss with your physician for further details.